Sunday, November 16, 2014
Sunday, October 26, 2014
Malachite Gemstone meaning
Malachite is believed to be a strong protector of children. It is said to protect the wearer from accidents and protects travelers. Malachite has been used to aid success in business and protect against undesirable business associations. It is a stone of balance in relationships.
Malachite is always green, usually in banded tones varying from very dark green to a mellow green. Most malachite comes from Zaire, Chile and Australia.
Ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used malachite for jewelry and ground it to use as eye shadow. It is used in amulets to protect against the evil eye. In the Middle Ages it was used to protect children from witches and other dangers.
Healing properties of Malachite
Malachite is a stone that should not be used for physical healing. Malachite has been called the "mirror of the soul". It is variable in its condition. It reaches the inner feelings of the person and reflects what is there, negative or positive. It is so beautiful that one would like to wear it in jewelry, but caution must be used when wearing Malachite. It will always reflect how you feel, if you feel negative don't wear Malachite. It reminds us that we have a dual nature and it is up to each person to know and rule his own person. To help get rid of nightmares, keep a piece of Malachite in your bedroom.
Use with copper to increase the power of malachite.
Posted by Dune at 2:37 AM
Wednesday, October 8, 2014
Posted by Dune at 6:04 AM
Sunday, October 5, 2014
Saturday, October 4, 2014
The theta rhythm is an oscillatory pattern in electroencephalography(EEG) signals recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes glued to the scalp. Two types of theta rhythm have been described. The "hippocampal theta rhythm" is a strong oscillation that can be observed in the hippocampus and other brain structures in numerous species of mammals including rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, bats, and marsupials. "Cortical theta rhythms" are low-frequency components of scalp EEG, usually recorded from humans.
In rats, the most frequently studied species, theta rhythmicity is easily observed in the hippocampus, but can also be detected in numerous other cortical and subcortical brain structures. Hippocampal theta, with a frequency range of 6–10 Hz, appears when a rat is engaged in active motor behavior such as walking or exploratory sniffing, and also during REM sleep. Theta waves with a lower frequency range, usually around 6–7 Hz, are sometimes observed when a rat is motionless but alert. When a rat is eating, grooming, or sleeping, the hippocampal EEG usually shows a non-rhythmic pattern known as Large irregular activity or LIA. The hippocampal theta rhythm depends critically on projections from the medial septal area, which in turn receives input from the hypothalamus and several brainstem areas. Hippocampal theta rhythms in other species differ in some respects from those in rats. In cats and rabbits, the frequency range is lower (around 4–6 Hz), and theta is less strongly associated with movement than in rats. In bats, theta appears in short bursts associated with echolocation. In humans and other primates, hippocampal theta is difficult to observe at all.
The function of the hippocampal theta rhythm is not clearly understood. Green and Arduini, in the first major study of this phenomenon, noted that hippocampal theta usually occurs together with desynchronized EEG in the neocortex, and proposed that it is related to arousal. Vanderwolf and his colleagues, noting the strong relationship between theta and motor behavior, have argued that it is related to sensorimotor processing. Another school, led by John O'Keefe, have suggested that theta is part of the mechanism animals use to keep track of their location within the environment. The most popular theories, however, link the theta rhythm to mechanisms of learning and memory.(Hasselmo, 2005)
Cortical theta rhythms observed in human scalp EEG are a different phenomenon, with no clear relationship to the hippocampus. In human EEG studies, the term theta refers to frequency components in the 4–7 Hz range, regardless of their source. Cortical theta is observed frequently in young children. In older children and adults, it tends to appear during meditative, drowsy, or sleeping states, but not during the deepest stages of sleep. Several types of brain pathology can give rise to abnormally strong or persistent cortical theta waves.
Posted by Dune at 1:10 AM
Monday, August 4, 2014
Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 7.5-12.5 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase or constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans. They are also called Berger's wave in memory of the founder of EEG.
Alpha waves are one type of brain waves detected either by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) and predominantly originate from the occipital lobe during wakeful relaxation with closed eyes. Alpha waves are reduced with open eyes, drowsiness and sleep. Historically, they were thought to represent the activity of the visual cortex in an idle state. More recent papers have argued that they inhibit areas of the cortex not in use, or alternatively that they play an active role in network coordination and communication. Occipital alpha waves during periods of eyes closed are the strongest EEG brain signals.
An alpha-like variant called mu (μ) can be found over the motor cortex (central scalp) that is reduced with movement, or the intention to move. Alpha waves do not start to appear until three years of age.
Given the alpha wave's connection with relaxed mental states, many people have latched onto the idea of utilizing this state through a technique called biofeedback training. This technique utilizes EEG to indicate to a subject or trainer when the subject is in an alpha wave state, which the subject is then instructed to remain in.
There are several different prospects of this training that are currently being explored. Arguably, the most popular one is the use of this training in meditation. Zen-trained meditation masters produce noticeably more alpha waves during meditation. This fact has led to a popular trend of biofeedback training programs for everyday stress relief.
Psychologists are hoping to use this technique to help people overcome phobias, calm down hyperactive children, and help children with stuttering problems to relax enough to practice regular speech.
There are other uses of biofeedback training beyond therapy. Defense Department researchers are exploring biofeedback as a way of getting captured soldiers to create alpha waves, potentially foiling enemy lie detectors. Biofeedback training has also been receiving attention as a possible way of monitoring attention. It has been theorized that teaching machines could use biofeedback as a way of monitoring children's attention, with the appearance of alpha waves signaling a lapse of attention.
Following this lapse-of-attention line of thought, a recent study indicates that alpha waves may be used to predict mistakes. In it, MEGs measured increases of up to 25% in alpha brain wave activity before mistakes occurred. This study used common sense: alpha waves indicate idleness, and mistakes are often made when a person is doing something automatically, or "on auto-pilot", and not paying attention to the task they are performing. After the mistake was noticed by the subject, there was a decrease in alpha waves as the subject began paying more attention. This study hopes to promote the use of wireless EEG technology on employees in high-risk fields, such as air traffic controlling, to monitor alpha wave activity and gauge the attention level of the employee.
Alpha waves for restoration and concentracion
Posted by Dune at 2:15 AM
Saturday, August 2, 2014
Tibet (/; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: Bod, pronounced [pʰø̀ʔ]; simplified Chinese: 藏区; traditional Chinese: 藏區; pinyin: Zàngqū; Mongolian: Tuvd, also Tsast meaning Snowy) is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas, in the People's Republic of China. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft).
Tibet emerged in the 7th century as a unified empire, but it soon divided into a variety of territories. The bulk of western and central Tibet (Ü-Tsang) was often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations; these governments were at various times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai. The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century.
Following the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area (Ü-Tsang). The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913, without recognition by the following Chinese Republican government. Later Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang Province, China. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Invasion of Tibet, Tibet became unified into the People's Republic of China, and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, the P.R. China governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region; while eastern areas are mostly within Sichuan, Qinghai and other neighbouring provinces, as ethnic autonomous prefectures. There are tensions regarding Tibet's political status and dissident groups which are active in exile. It is also said that Tibetan activists in Tibet have been arrested or tortured.
The economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in Tibet in recent decades. The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism, in addition there is Bön which was the indigenous religion of Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century CE (Bön is now similar to Tibetan Buddhism) though there are also Muslim and Christian minorities. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art, music, and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, and butter tea.
Posted by Dune at 5:23 AM
Friday, August 1, 2014
Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, green and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects or materials based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.
Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.
The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, chromatography, colorimetry, or simply color science. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light).
Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength (or frequency) and its intensity. When the wavelength is within the visible spectrum (the range of wavelengths humans can perceive, approximately from 390 nm to 700 nm), it is known as "visible light".
Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths; a source's spectrum is a distribution giving its intensity at each wavelength. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary widely among different species, and to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question.
Posted by Dune at 1:45 AM
Wednesday, July 23, 2014
Posted by Dune at 3:45 AM
Thursday, July 10, 2014
Lucid dreaming through the history
Even though it has only come to the attention of the general public in the last few decades, lucid dreaming is not a modern discovery. Lucid dreaming is the western term used to denote a practice similar to Yoga nidra. The distinguishing difference is the degree to which one remains cognizant of the actual physical environment as opposed to a dream environment. In lucid dreaming, we are only (or mainly) cognizant of the dream environment, and have little or no awareness of our actual environment. The concept of Yoga nidra is very ancient in Indian traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Krishna is often associated with Yoga nidra in epic Mahabharata. Similarly, many yogis and rishis are supposed to have experienced Yoga nidra throughout their life. In modern times, Yoga nidra was experienced by Swami Satyananda Saraswati when he was living with his guru Swami Sivananda in Rishikesh. He began studying the tantric scriptures and, after practice, constructed a system of relaxation, which he began popularizing in the mid 20th century. He explained yoga nidra as a state of mind between wakefulness and sleep that opened deep phases of the mind, suggesting a connection with the ancient tantric practice called nyasa, whereby Sanskrit mantras are mentally placed within specific body parts, while meditating on each part (of the bodymind). The form of practice taught by Swami Satyananda includes eight stages (Internalisation, Sankalpa, Rotation of Consciousness, Breath Awareness, Manifestation of Opposites, Creative Visualization, Sankalpa and Externalisation).
Also, in early Buddhism it was a common practice among people in the monastic community. As preserved in the ancient Sarvastivada school's Sutra on Mindfulness of the Body in the Madhayama agama (equivalent of Pali Kayagatasati) it states that monks and nuns under practice should be 'Understanding (having awareness in) the four postures and states of being asleep or awake'. Documented since the 8th century, Tibetan Buddhists and Bonpo were practicing a form of dream yoga held to maintain full waking consciousness while in the dream state. One important message of the book is the distinction between the Dzogchen meditation of awareness and dream yoga. The Dzogchen awareness meditation has also been referred to by the terms rigpa awareness, contemplation, and presence. Awareness during the sleep and dream states is associated with the Dzogchen practice of natural light. This practice only achieves lucid dreams as a secondary effect—in contrast to dream yoga, which aims primarily at lucid dreaming. According to Buddhist teachers, the experience of lucidity helps us understand the unreality of phenomena, which would otherwise be overwhelming during dream or the death experience.
In Western culture, the phenomenon had been referred to by Greek philosopher Aristotle who had written: "often when one is asleep, there is something in consciousness which declares that what then presents itself is but a dream". Also in a letter written by St. Augustine of Hippo in 415 AD about a story of a dreamer, Doctor Gennadius, refers to lucid dreaming. The dreamer reported that he didn't realize he was in the dream world but the man whom he met in his dream reminded him about this and pointed out that his experience was a proof of life after death.
An early recorded lucid dreamer was the philosopher and physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). Browne was fascinated by the world of dreams and described his own ability to lucid dream in his Religio Medici: "...yet in one dream I can compose a whole Comedy, behold the action, apprehend the jests and laugh my self awake at the conceits thereof". Similarly, Samuel Pepys in his diary entry for 15 August 1665 records a dream "that I had my Lady Castlemayne in my arms and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, and then dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream". Marquis d'Hervey de Saint-Denys argued that it is possible for anyone to learn to dream consciously. In 1867, he published his book Les Rêves et les moyens de les diriger; observations pratiques ("Dreams and How to Guide them; Practical Observations"), in which he documented more than twenty years of his own research into dreams.
The term lucid dreaming was coined by Dutch author and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in his 1913 article "A Study of Dreams". This paper was highly anecdotal and not embraced by the scientific community. Some consider this a misnomer because it means much more than just "clear or vivid" dreaming. The alternative term conscious dreaming avoids this confusion. However, the term lucid was used by van Eeden in its sense of "having insight", as in the phrase a lucid interval applied to someone in temporary remission from a psychosis, rather than as a reference to the perceptual quality of the experience, which may or may not be clear and vivid.
In the 1950s, the Senoi hunter-gatherers of Malaysia were reported to make extensive use of lucid dreaming to ensure mental health, although later studies refuted these claims.
A 2012 report by the BBC claimed that "interest in lucid dreaming has grown in recent years", and corroborated this with examples of the many smartphone apps that exist to help people experience the phenomenon. One such app was downloaded half a million times in six weeks, the report says.
Posted by Dune at 12:00 PM